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Cardiovascular diseases risk

Cardiovascular diseases risk

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Gender
The gender of a person affects the functioning of the cardiovascular system. In women of childbearing age, the concentration of HDL cholesterol is higher than in male peers, and largely due to this, women are less likely to suffer from atherosclerosis. In addition, the female heart beats more often at 8-10 beats per minute. There are also differences in weight: the female heart is 10-15% lighter than the male heart in terms of mass.
Age
Age also has a significant effect on the state of the heart. Its size and weight change throughout life, and the shape and position also slightly change. Naturally, the working capacity of the heart, its stability and adaptability to physical stress at different ages are not the same. In men, the risk of heart disease increases with age, partly because of elevated blood cholesterol levels, body weight, and often blood pressure. In middle age, the consequences of smoking, stress, infectious diseases and other factors begin to affect. The elderly are most at risk of cardiovascular disease. Young people and children can also have problems. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the health of your heart at any age.
Heart disease is often associated with being overweight. It can lead to both angina pectoris and other disorders of the cardiovascular system without any symptoms. Calculating BMI allows you to determine the degree of overweight. Usually, excess weight in men accumulates in the abdomen. The upper limit of BMI is 25. Exceeding this limit by only 1 unit at the age of 30-44 increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 10%.
BMI
Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using a person’s height and weight. The formula is BMI = kg/m2, where kg is a person’s weight in kilograms and m2 is their height in metres squared.
Physical activity
The heart works at different frequencies (the norm is 60-90 beats per minute) in people who lead a sedentary lifestyle and physically active people. It consumes a certain amount of nutrients and wears out at a certain rate (like the body as a whole). During exercise, the metabolism accelerates significantly, but it then begins to slow down and finally decreases to a level below normal. The body works more economically in a trained person, and life expectancy increases. People who exercise are less prone to stress, depression and headaches; they sleep better and become more self-confident. Exercises strengthen not only muscles but also bones. Hence, people with high physical activity are less likely to suffer from osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. It also lowers blood pressure and strengthens the cardiovascular system.
Smoking
Smoking is the most important and avoidable cause of death. In smokers, the risk of myocardial infarction is almost two times higher than in non-smokers, and the risk of sudden cardiac death is 2-4 times higher. Peripheral vascular disease, in which blood vessels constrict and lose their ability to supply the extremities with sufficient oxygen and nutrients, affects practically only smokers.
Alcohol
Moderate alcohol consumption protects the heart from various diseases, especially heart attacks. Those who drink moderately are much less likely to develop coronary artery disease. However, chronic excess of the daily norm of alcohol leads to an increase in blood pressure, the appearance of cardiac arrhythmias and can cause a stroke.
Total сholesterol level
The content of cholesterol in the blood has a significant effect on the condition of the heart and blood vessels. Therefore it is necessary not only to know but also to measure its level regularly. If you are over 20 years old and have no signs of heart disease, it is best to check your cholesterol every three years. For men over 45 and women over 55 – once a year.
Blood pressure (reference to the upper / systolic pressure 120/80)
Blood pressure is the force that occurs when blood presses against the walls of arteries. Its value is regulated by the smallest arteries – arterioles. When these arteries narrow, the heart has to work harder to force blood through smaller vessels. An increase in pressure in itself is a disease of the cardiovascular system. Also, it carries a severe health risk. It is one of the most common and dangerous risk factors for more dangerous cardiovascular pathologies.
Diabetes
People with diabetes have an increased risk of coronary artery disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. As with many other risk factors for heart disease, it is essential to detect diabetes as early as possible, learn a healthy diet, and treat it if necessary.
Close relatives diagnosed with diabetes or diseases of the cardiovascular system(arterial hypertension, stroke, heart attack).
Knowing relatives’ diseases, the causes of death of deceased family members, and their age at the time of death can determine whether you have an increased risk of any diseases. Although a certain number of conditions are inherited, in many cases, cardiovascular diseases are not caused by genes but by environmental factors and family habits.
Pain and discomfort (multiple-choice)
The general condition or well-being manifests from the main symptoms of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Some heart diseases do not manifest themselves for quite a long time. At the same time, pains in the heart region may not be a consequence of heart disease.
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